大学英语 新标准高职实用综合教程(第2版)第四册 Unit 05

大学英语 新标准高职实用综合教程(第2版)第四册 Unit 05

Unit 05 : Gender Roles > Listening and Watching > Listening

Listen to the passage and supply the missing words or phrases.


◦       Over the past few decades, Americans have made great strides in accepting and (1)  to new definitions of gender roles. Part of the cause is the (2) number of women in the workplace. (3)  the Bureau of Labor Statistics, white men (who once dominated the workplace) now (4)  about 45 percent of all workers. White women and women of color (5) 47 percent of the workplace. In 1995, 76 percent of women between the ages of 25 and 54 worked outside the home, up from 50 percent in 1970. With the increased (6)  of women in the workplace, old attitudes and (7)  have had to change. Men and women are more aware of sexual harassment than previously; whereas 20 years ago a woman who refused to have an (8)  with her boss may have had to quit, she now has other options. (9)  are now experimenting with policies that are family-friendly, such as flex time, job sharing, and on-site child care — policies that (10) both men and women.

  • 正确答案:1. adjusting   2. increased   3. According to   4. account for   5. make up   6. presence   7. behavior   8. affair   9. Companies   10. benefit  
  • Script:
          Over the past few decades, Americans have made great strides in accepting and adjusting to new definitions of gender roles. Part of the cause is the increased number of women in the workplace. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, white men (who once dominated the workplace) now account for about 45 percent of all workers. White women and women of color make up 47 percent of the workplace. In 1995, 76 percent of women between the ages of 25 and 54 worked outside the home, up from 50 percent in 1970. With the increased presence of women in the workplace, old attitudes and behavior have had to change. Men and women are more aware of sexual harassment than previously; whereas 20 years ago a woman who refused to have an affair with her boss may have had to quit, she now has other options. Companies are now experimenting with policies that are family-friendly, such as flex time, job sharing, and onsite child care — policies that benefit both men and women.

Unit 05 : Gender Roles > Text Study > Text A

  • Changing Gender Roles
  • 1     It’s 6:00 p.m. in the Barnett household. Alex and Susan have been home from work for about 15 minutes. It’s Alex’s turn to cook dinner. Susan could have some rest now, but she is getting angry in the kitchen.
    2     Alex has just hung up from ordering a pizza — for the third time this month. When it’s her turn to cook dinner, Susan always tries to prepare something delicious and low in fat. She wants their five-year-old daughter, Eliza, to learn to eat healthy at a young age. Alex, however, pays little attention to her concern: “Is eating pizza for dinner going to do harm to Eliza?”
    3     After arguing the point for minutes, Susan realizes there is more to it than meets the eye. “It’s not the pizza — it’s just that you always take the easy way out when you have to help out around here.”
    4     Alex answers back: “Why are you always critical of how I do things? Nearly all I ever hear from you is that I never do enough around here and the things I do are never good enough. I do plenty around here that I never get any credit for!
    5     More than probably, this arguing sounds familiar to every one of us. We live at a time when gender roles are changing and few paths are marked as we try to figure out the right way to make our lives work in relationships. What makes gender relations complicated is that our world today would have been almost impossible to imagine even 40 years ago.
    6     Gender relations today present a puzzling picture. On one hand, we are told that women and men are rapidly becoming equal partners at home and in the workplaceWith women and men moving into each other’s traditional spheres, it would seem logical that we would finally be able to understand each other’s experiences. Women have now had to compete day after day to support their family. Often they aim at the same goals as men; today there are, for example, more women than men in many professional schools. Surely women can now understand the social pressures that their husbands have always felt.
    7     As wives have moved in even greater numbers into the workplace, husbands have had to take on more of women’s traditional responsibilities for childcare and housework. It would seem they could now understand these responsibilities, the endless routine of care and crisis.
    8     On the other hand, we are told that our social experiences are separated by light years and We don’t know what to say to one another. At the same time, there are daily reports in newspapers and on TV about quarrels, fights and divorces between husbands and wives.
    9      What has not changed clearly over the past 40 years is the desire of men and women to figure out what is appropriate for their own and the other gender — and to find ways to live together. What has changed is that we are now less sure about what is the right way to be a man or a woman.
    10     And so you, both of us, and Alex and Susan all struggle with gender issues on a daily basis. At the end of last year, Susan was promoted to vice president of the bank for which she works. She now makes more money than Alex, who is a chemist with a large company that produces agricultural products. Under great pressure to keep the bank’s investments profitable, Susan often works long hours. She drives herself hard to exceed expectations for her, and Alex has had to take on some housework. When he was under considerable pressure in the first few years of his career, Susan pulled the heavier load at home, so he now has greater sympathy for her. But as we have seen, at times sympathy isn’t enough to bridge reality and expectations!
  • Translation:

转变中的性别角色

1    现在是下午6点,在巴尼特家。亚历克斯和苏珊下班到家已经差不多15分钟了。今天轮到亚历克斯做晚饭,苏珊现在可以休息一会儿,可她却在厨房里生气。

2    亚历克斯刚刚挂上电话,他订了比萨饼——这已经是这个月的第三次了。每逢苏珊做饭的时候,她总是尽量做些美味而且低脂肪的饭菜。她希望他们5岁的女儿伊莱札从小就培养健康的饮食习惯。然而,亚历克斯对此却不怎么在意:“晚饭吃比萨饼会对伊莱札有害么?

3    为此争论了几分钟后,苏珊意识到问题不仅仅是眼前这件事。“关键不是比萨饼——而是每当你在家里帮忙做家务的时候,总是偷懒敷衍。”

4    亚历克斯反驳道:“为什么你总是对我做事说三道四呢?从你嘴里说出来的差不多总是我在家做得不够多,而且从来做不好。我在家已经做得够多了,却从来没有得到过夸奖!”

5    对我们所有人来说,这类争论听起来肯定很熟悉。在我们生活的这个时代,性别角色正在发生转变。我们试图找到正确方法处理两性关系,却很难找到。导致两性关系复杂的原因在于我们今天的世界在40年前是无法想象的。

6    今天的两性关系呈现出一幅令人困惑的图景。一方面,有人说男性和女性无论在家里还是在职场都正在迅速成为平等的伙伴。随着女性和男性进入对方的传统领地,按理说我们终于可以理解对方的经历。女性现在也得终日奔波来养家糊口。她们的目标定位往往和男性是一样的。例如,如今在许多培养专业人员的学校里,女性已经多于男性。女性现在自然可以理解丈夫们一直感受到的社会压力。

7    随着更多的妻子成为职业女性,丈夫们必须担负起更多原本属于女性的责任,比如照顾小孩和做家务。按理说他们现在可以理解这些责任,这些无穷无尽、已成了家常便饭的操心和危急时刻。

8    而另一方面,有人说两性社会经验之间的距离要用光年测算,我们不知道该跟对方说什么。同时,报纸和电视上每天都有夫妻争吵、打架甚至离婚的报道。

9    在过去40年里一直没有显著变化的,是男性和女性很想弄明白对自己和异性而言什么才是对的——并找到共同生活的方法。变化的是我们越来越不确定怎样做男人或女人才是对的。

10    于是亚历克斯和苏珊就像你我一样,每天都在为性别问题而争吵不休。去年底,苏珊升任她所在银行的副行长,她现在赚钱比亚历克斯多了。他是药剂师,在一家生产农药的大型化工厂上班。银行的投资必须得到回报,在这种压力之下,苏珊经常要加班。她拼命干活以不负众望,因此亚历克斯就不得不承担一部分家务。他刚工作的几年里压力很大,苏珊承担了更多的家事负担,因此现在他对苏珊更为理解了。然而,正如我们见到的,有时候理解并不足以填平现实和期待之间的鸿沟!


Unit 05 : Gender Roles > Unit Quiz

I   Directions: Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences.

  • 1. German has three _______but French only has two.
  • A. genders
  • B. gender
  • C. male
  • D. female
  • 2. Even the Champion himself never expected to ______the phone.
  • A. hang up
  • B. hang over
  • C. hang out
  • D. Hang on
  • 3. TV______ us with distant parts of the world.
  • A. familiarize
  • B. family
  • C. familiar
  • D. familiarizes
  • 4. We have formed a business ______.
  • A. apart
  • B. partner
  • C. part
  • D. partnership
  • 5. To do the job you should know some ______ knowledge and training.
  • A. base
  • B. basic
  • C. basis
  • D. bases
  • 6. I have ______ from your advice.
  • A. benefit
  • B. profit
  • C. profiting
  • D. profited
  • 7. We must be ______ about the difficulties we are now in.
  • A. really
  • B. reality
  • C. realistic
  • D. real
  • 8. We should focus on the enforcement of health and safety precautions at the ________.
  • A. workplace
  • B. place
  • C. work
  • D. surrounding
  • 9. He was appointed as the ______ manager last year.
  • A. prove
  • B. price
  • C. add
  • D. vice
  • 10. This mystery _____me.
  • A. puzzle
  • B. puzzles
  • C. puzzling
  • D. to puzzle
  • 11. Our sheep _____the grass while the dogs were enjoying the bones.
  • A. are eating
  • B. were eating
  • C. was eating
  • D. is eating
  • 12. Wow, a lot of fish ______by my cousin last night.
  • A. taught
  • B. were caught
  • C. were taught
  • D. caught
  • 13. Either John or his brother _____ to the library every day, but most of the time they cannot find a place to sit.
  • A. go
  • B. went
  • C. goes
  • D. gone
  • 14. Two months ______passed since he left his hometown to work in the capital city.
  • A. has
  • B. is
  • C. was
  • D. were
  • 15. He is the only one of those children who ____ a member in the book club.
  • A are
  • B. is
  • C. was
  • D .were
  • 正确答案:1. A   2. A   3. D   4. D   5. B   6. D   7. C   8. A   9. D   10. B   11. B   12. B   13. C   14. A   15. B  


  • II   Directions: You are required to find the items equivalent to those given in Chinese in the table below.
  • (  ) 1. 职业女性
  • (  ) 2. 性别歧视
  • (  ) 3. 男性的
  • (  ) 4. 女性的
  • (  ) 5. 妇女解放运动
  • (  ) 6. 妇女地位
  • (  ) 7. 大男子主
  • (  ) 8. 性别歧视者义
  • (  ) 9. 女权主义
  • (  ) 10. 家庭主妇
  • a. masculine
  • b. feminine
  • c. sexism
  • d. male chauvinism
  • e. sexist
  • f. women’s status
  • g. feminism
  • h. career woman
  • i. housewife
  • j. Women’s Liberation
  • 正确答案:1. h   2. c   3. a   4. b   5. j   6. f   7. d   8. e   9. g   10. i  


  • III   Directions: Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
  • 1. Alex and Susan have been home from work for about 15 minutes.
  • 2.“It’s not the pizza — it’s just that you always take the easy way out when you have to help out around here.”
  • 3. Nearly all I ever hear from you is that I never do enough around here and the things I do are never good enough
  • 4. More than probably, this arguing sounds familiar to every one of us.
  • 5. As wives have moved in even greater numbers into the workplace, husbands have had to take on more of women’s traditional responsibilities for childcare and housework
  • 参考答案:1. 亚历克斯和苏珊下班到家已经差不多15分钟了。
    2. “关键不是比萨饼——而是每当你在家里帮忙做家务的时候,总是偷懒敷衍。”
    3. 从你嘴里说出来的差不多总是我在家做得不够多,而且从来做不好。
    4. 对我们所有人来说,这类争论听起来肯定很熟悉。
    5. 随着更多的妻子成为职业女性,丈夫们必须担负起更多原本属于女性的责任,比如照顾小孩和做家务。

Text A / Comprehension

A. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false, try to supply a true one.

1. According to Susan, eating pizza too often is not good for one’s health.

2. What happens in the Barnett household is rarely seen elsewhere.

3. Wives cannot understand the social pressures on their husbands who want to succeed in the world.

4. Today, most people know clearly their roles as men or women.

5. Susan has always hated doing housework.

6. The writer thinks that now men and women have become completely equal partners in the workplace as well as at home.

Key:

1. T 

2. F The argument in the Barnett household sounds familiar to every one of us.

3. F Women can now understand the social pressures that their husbands have always felt.

4. F We are now less sure about what is the right way to be a man or a woman.

5. F Susan wants to do more housework and take good care of her family; she is just too busy to do so.

6. F We are told that women and men are rapidly becoming equal partners at home and in the workplace.

B. Complete the statements that follow the questions.

1. What had Alex done before he hung up?

He  _________.                                  

2. Why does Alex answer back when Susan blames him for not helping out enough with housework?

He thinks he has done plenty at home but Susan never gives _________ what he does.

3. Why do women work hard now?

They have to compete day after day to__________.

4. What have husbands done when wives have moved in greater numbers into the workplace?

Husbands have had to ________much of the routine job at home that women used to do.

5. What happened to Susan at the end of last year?

She was_________of the bank for which she works.

6. How does Susan try to keep her bank’s investments profitable?

She often___________.                           

Key:

1. had ordered a pizza

2. him any credit for

3. support his families

4. take on

5. promoted to vice president

6. works long hours

Vocabulary Building / Exercises

A.Match the definitions in Column B with the words in Column A.

B. Fill in each of the following blanks with the proper form of the given words.

1. He spent a ______(consider) amount of money on his new house.

2. You should always keep in mind your right ___________(responsible).

3. I had not _______(expectation) that things should turn out like this.

4. We are in favor of ______(competition) openly and justly for that position.

5. It is no good ignoring the problem; you must face up to _______(real).

6. They have been ______(argument) over this issue for hours.

7. He has ______(investment) all his savings in a new business.

8. In order to keep his business _______(profit), he works very hard, almost having no holidays.

Key:

1. considerable  2. responsibilities  3. expected  4. competing 5. reality

6. arguing 7. invested 8. profitable

Grammar Tips / Exercises

Complete each of the following sentences in the subjunctive mood.

1. The number of ___________________________ (将要参军的学生数量是错的).

2.The means of ____________________________(解决问题的方式很简单).

3. Some deer _________________________(正在河边玩耍).

4. Five minute_________________________ (做这项锻炼是不够的).

5.Each boy and each girl _______________________(喜欢周末去爬山).

6.Five years _______________________ (不算很久).

7.The whole family ____________________ (正在寻找丢失的孩子).

8. Either your students or Mr. Wang ____________________(知道如何处理这个问题).

Key:

1. the student who will join the army is wrong

2. solving the problem is very easy

3.are playing around the river

4.is not enough to do this exercise

5. likes to climb the mountain at weekends

6. is not very long

7. are looking for the lost child

8. knows how to deal with the problem

Text B / Comprehension

A. Choose the best answer for each of the following statements or questions.

1.  ________ think of Lilly as one of the best technical soccer players.

A. Some people

B. American soccer fans

C. Most people

D. Most women

2. Lilly’s brother let her play hard because ________.

A. he knew that she liked doing so

B. she did not dare to resist

C. he was cruel and unsympathetic

D. he wanted to watch over he

3. Lilly’s teammates in the boys’ traveling soccer team ________.

A. wondered why she would join them

B. welcomed her as a member of the team

C. felt uncomfortable to have her on the team though they liked her

D. succeeded in letting her play in all soccer matches

4. In the 1991 WWC, Norway’s women’s national soccer team came out ________.

A first        B. second        C. third          D. fourth

5. To play well in soccer games requires much time in training, ________.

A. A. so Lilly concentrates all her energy on her career as a soccer player

B. but Lilly is also interested in many other things

C. so Lilly does few things that have nothing to do with soccer

D. but Lilly does not regret having sacrificed all her other interests

6. It seems that when she becomes too old to play soccer Lilly will ________.

A go in for bicycling

B. become a communications specialist

C. become a writer or musician

D. try many other things that interest her

Key:

1.C  2.A 3.B 4.B 5.B 6.D

B. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false, try to supply a true one.

1. Kristine is known as the “Iron Woman” of soccer.

2. The U.S. women’s national soccer team won two Olympic gold medals with the help of Lilly.

3. Lilly was treated differently when she played soccer with boys.

4.Lilly made her first appearance in an international competition in 1987 in China.

5.Lilly’s family has always had a good influence on her career.

6. In Lilly’s opinion, women can accomplish most things that men can.

Key:

1. T

2. F   The U.S. women’s national soccer team won two Women’s World Cups and one Olympic gold medal with the help of Lilly.

3. F    Lilly was never treated differently; like the boys, she had to be tough.

4. T

5. T

6 . T

Comprehensive Exercises

A. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each of the blanks.

    Peggy Whitson first imagined being an astronaut (宇航员) at the age of nine, when, sitting excitedly before the television set, she watched Neil Armstrong become the (1)____ human to walk on the (2)_____ , in 1969. Thirty-three years later, on June 5, 2002, she fulfilled her dream, when she and two Russian astronauts were launched (3)_____space on the shuttle (航天飞机) Endeavor, bound for a six-month stay aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

    Whitson was born on February 9, 1960. (4)_____still a little girl, she believed that women could do as well as men in most jobs. Her teachers remember her (5) _____ a bright, diligent student with a positive attitude. During high school she (6) ____ on the girls’ basketball team and competed in other sports. In 1978, she (7)______ second in her class from high school. Seven years later she earned a doctorate (博士学位) in biochemistry from Rice University.

Whitson had worked for NASA (美国国家航空和航天局) for 10 years before (8)____             selected as an astronaut in 1996. When Endeavor (9)____ the ISS on June 7, 2002, she became the first American with a Ph.D., the first without a military background, the first research scientist, and the second woman (10)_____serve on the ISS.

1. A. first       B. last          C. second      D. single

2. A. space      B. air          C. moon        D. satellite

3. A. from      B. at            C. on         D. into

4. A. Since      B. When         C. If         D. Where

5. A. be        B. for            C. as         D. like

6. A. fought     B. worked        C. played      D. joined

7. A. studied    B. won           C. took        D. graduated

8. A. being      B. to be          C. was         D. is

9. A. founded    B. established    C. reached       D. built

10. A. who       B. to           C. that          D. whom

Key:

1.A 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.C 6.C 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

B. Translate the following sentences into English using the words or phrases given.

1. 当今越来越多的男性开始帮忙做家务了。(help out)

2. 妻子弄不明白她们的丈夫为何有如此大的压力。(figure out)

3. 不管是女性还是男性都承担着同样的社会责任。(take on)

4. 很多女性除了工作还要做大量家务。(apart from)

5. 我外出时你照料这个婴儿好吗?(watch over)

Key:

1. Today more and more men have begun to help out with the housework.

2. The wives cannot figure out why their husbands are under so great pressures.

3. Woman and man have to take on the same social responsibility.

4. Many women have to do much housework apart from their job.

5. Will you watch over the baby while I’m out?

C. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.

     With women and men moving into each other’s traditional spheres, it would seem logical that we would finally be able to understand each other’s experiences. Women have now had to compete day after day to support their family. Often they aim at the same goals as men; today there are, for example, more women than men in many professional schools. Surely women can now understand the social pressures that their husbands have always felt.

随着女性和男性进入对方的传统领地,按理说我们终于可以理解对方的经历。女性现在也得终日奔波来养家糊口。她们的目标定位往往和男性是一样的。例如,如今在许多培养专业人员的学校里,女性已经多于男性。女性现在自然可以理解丈夫们一直感受到的社会压力。

Practical Reading and Writing

A. Complete the answer (in no more than three words) to each of the following questions.

1. What is the title of the job advertised?

It is a Mobile Phone __________.

2. Where is the job?

____________.

3. What are some of the specific areas of knowledge that the candidate should have of software tool sets?

Compilers and Linkers,____________.

4. What is a plus according to the advertisement?

______________.

5. What programming languages should the candidate be experienced in?

He should be experienced in ___________programming languages.

Key:

1. Software Integration Engineer

2.Beijing

3. Memory Maps

4. Linux experience

5. C and C++

B. Write a job advertisement based on the following information. You should write at least 70 words. Follow the example you have read and pay close attention to the writing tips given above.

NUC 公司在全国有30多家分公司。为了拓展南方的销售市场,现招聘一名销售助理。

责任:

• 根据总公司的指示负责管理本地的销售活动

• 收集相关的信息发送到总公司

• 发展同本地媒体和用户的关系

要求:

• 大学或以上学历,英语良好(说与写的能力强)

• 具有销售和营销的基本理念,有相关经验者优先

• 必须在跨国机构中有工作经验

• 具有良好的沟通和表达能力

Sample answer:

NUC Company has more than 30 branches in our country. In order to promote the marketing of our main products in the South, we are now looking for a marketing assistant
Responsibilities
• Responsible for the local management of marketing and sales activities.
• Collect related information for the head office.
• Develop relationships with local media and customers.
Requirements
• College degree and above with good English (speaking and writing).
• With basic idea of sales and marketing, related experience is preferred.
• Working experience in an international organization is a must.
• Good communication and presentation skills.
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我要像梦一样自由,像天空一样坚强;
在曲折蜿蜒的路上,体验生命的意义;

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