大学英语 新标准高职实用综合教程(第2版)第四册 Unit 03

Unit 03 : The Car and Life > Listening and Watching > Listening

Listen to the passage and supply the missing words or phrases.

  •       As the car industry develops, traffic accidents have become as (1)  as the common cold, yet their cause and control (2)  a serious problem that is difficult to solve. (3)  have long recognized that this discouraging problem has notable causes. At the very least, it is a problem that (4)  three factors: the driver, the (5)  and the roadway. If all drivers exercised good (6)  at all times, there would be fewer accidents. But this is rather like saying that if all people were honest, there would be no crime. (7)  has helped to make highways much safer. But the tide of accidents continues to rise because of (8)  and enormous increase in the number of (9)  on the road. Attention is now turning increasingly to the third factor of the accident, the car itself. Since people assume that accidents are (10) , they want to know how cars can be built better to protect the drivers.
  • 正确答案:1. familiar   2. remain   3. Experts   4. involves   5. vehicle   6. judgments   7. Improved design   8. human failure   9. automobiles   10. bound to occur  
  • Script:
          As the car industry develops, traffic accidents have become as familiar as the common cold, yet their cause and control remain a serious problem that is difficult to solve. Experts have long recognized that this discouraging problem has notable causes. At the very least, it is a problem that involves three factors: the driver, the vehicle and the roadway. If all drivers exercised good judgments at all times, there would be fewer accidents. But this is rather like saying that if all people were honest, there would be no crime. Improved design has helped to make highways much safer. But the tide of accidents continues to rise because of human failure and enormous increase in the number of automobiles on the road. Attention is now turning increasingly to the third factor of the accident, the car itself. Since people assume that accidents are bound to occur, they want to know how cars can be built better to protect the drivers.

Unit 03 : The Car and Life > Text Study > Text A

  • Why Americans Would Rather Drive
  • 1     My daily commute to and from work generally takes about 25 minutes. Traffic and weather sometimes make it last 45 minutes or more. But if I’ve got a good song to listen to, a long commute doesn’t upset me. In fact, I don’t mind my lonely drive at all — I rather like it.
    2     And I’m not the only one.
    3     In a recent survey of drivers in the U.S., 45 percent agreed that driving was their time to think and enjoy being alone. Only 30 percent disagreed; the rest were neutralThis was an issue with no gender gap: there were as many women as men who said they liked their drive time. Nor was it an issue of age: only among people older than 55 was the number who didn’t enjoy driving greater than the number who did.
    4     “The car offers a rare space over which the drivers have total control,” writes Alan Smith in the survey. “Here they can breathe in the middle of the breathlesspace of work and home, phones, and the Internet.” Smith also uses evidence collected by other scholars to confirm that drivers are far less negative about the time they spend in the car than experts have previously believed.
    5     But experts hardly agree that Americans generally like to drive themselves to work.For decades we have been urged to get out of our cars and into mass transit. We’ve been told that cars are bad for the environment and bad for communities. We’ve been hit with heavy gas taxes and we hear regular demands that they be made even heavier.
    6      Nevertheless, we drive. Only 5 percent of commuters take mass transit to work — and the number has been dropping. While the use of cars has increased more than 85 percent since 1970, the use of mass transit — buses, subways, trolleys, commuter trains — has dropped by 3 percent. Today mass transit represents barely 1 percent of the nation’s surface passenger travel.
    7     Almost without exception, every time a city builds or expands a subway system, the percentage of commuters using public transit decreases. At a cost of more than $10 billion, Washington D.C. built a large subway network in the 1970s and 1980s. It now carries a smaller proportion of the region’s commuters than the old bus and trolley system did 30 years ago.
    8     It is not that Americans wouldn’t listen to their experts, but it is reasonable to prefer private cars to public trains and buses. Cars and highways are available 24 hours a day. They go almost everywhere. They sharply reduce travel time — in America, the average mass transit commute takes 42 minutes while the average commuter driving to work makes it in only 20. And without question, cars and highways are safer: death rates are much lower for cars and highways — especially interstate highways — than for most forms of mass transit.
    9      It isn’t a “love affair” with cars that keeps Americans behind the wheel. It is the freedom, flexibility, and efficiency that automobiles provide. Nor is this an American phenomenon. Anywhere people have the choice, they choose to drive. In Europe, automobile use has risen steadily for decades. Since 1989, in what was East Germany, the number of people using mass transit has been reduced by 50 percent; the number using cars now equals that in the former West Germany.
    10     People who dislike cars need to face the reality: Americans would rather drive. Subways and commuter trains, no matter how much is spent on them, will account for only a small proportion of commuter trips. We have far more mass transit than we need, but not nearly enough highway lanesSo it is high time to start spending the money where it is most needed.

Translation:

美国人为何宁愿开车

1    我每天上下班花在路上的时间大约为25分钟,有时由于交通和天气的原因,要花45分钟甚至更长的时间。但如果有一首好歌听着,在路上待久一点也并不让我感到心烦。事实上,我一点都不反感独自驾车,我很喜欢这样呢。

2    而且,喜欢驾车上下班的并非我一人。

3    最近对美国驾车族的调查发现,45%的人认为驾车是他们进行思考和享受独处的时间。只有30%的人不同意此看法,其余的人对此不置可否。在这个问题上没有性别差异:在喜欢开车时光的人中,男女各半;也没有年龄差异,只有在年龄超过55岁的人群中,不喜欢独自开车的人数超过了喜欢的人数。

4    在调查报告中,艾伦•史密斯写道:“车给驾车人提供了一个可以完全由他们操纵的难得空间。他们在工作、家庭、电话、互联网的快节奏生活中喘不过气来,而在这个空间里,他们可以歇口气。”史密斯还使用了其他学者收集到的证据来证明,开车的人对花在车里的时间远远没有专家们原先认为的那么反感。

5    但是专家们还是不承认美国人一般都喜欢开车上班。几十年来,我们一直受到敦促:走出自家的车子,去乘坐公共交通工具。有人一直跟我们说汽车污染环境、危害社区。我们已被征收了高额的汽油税,并且常听见有人要求汽油税收得更重些。

6    然而,我们仍然驾车。只有5%的上班族乘坐公共交通工具上下班,而且他们的人数还一直在减少。从1970年到现在,私家车的使用增加了85%,而公共交通工具,如巴士、地铁、电车、通勤列车的使用下降了3%。如今公共交通仅占全国地面客运的1%。

7    几乎无一例外,每次一个城市修建或延伸一条地铁线,使用公共交通上下班的人数比重就会随之下降。在20世纪七八十年代,华盛顿特区耗资一百多亿美元,建造了一个庞大的地铁系统。但它现在运载的本地上班族的比例比30年前老式巴士和电车运载的还要少。

8    这并非美国人不愿听专家们的建议,而是因为选择自驾车代替乘坐火车和公共汽车确实情有可原。汽车和高速公路一天24小时都可使用,而且四通八达,可以去任何地方。出行的时间也大大减少 —— 在美国,利用公共交通工具上下班的时间平均为42分钟,而自己开车上下班平均花费时间仅为20分钟。而且毫无疑问,自驾车和高速公路也更安全:开车和在高速公路上的事故死亡率远远低于公共交通,尤其是在州际公路上。

9    并不是对汽车的“爱恋”使美国人更愿意驾车,而是汽车带来的自由、灵活和高效使他们这么做。而且这并不是一个美国现象。在任何地方,人们只要能选择,就会选择驾车。在欧洲,几十年来汽车的使用一直稳步上升。1989年以来,在原东德地区,使用公共交通工具的人数下降了50%,开车的人数现在已与原西德持平。

10    不喜欢汽车的人必须面对这个现实:美国人宁愿开车。无论投多少钱建设地铁和通勤列车,它们都只会占上下班交通的一小部分。我们的公共交通系统远远供大于求,而高速公路车道却不够用。因此是时候开始把钱花在最需要的地方了。


Unit 03 : The Car and Life > Unit Quiz

I   Directions: Choose the best answer to each blank.

  • 1. The students hold their_______ waiting for the announcement of the first prize winner.

  • A.breath

  • B.breathe

  • C.breathless

  • D.breathed
  • 2.His opinion is neither for nor against, it is ________.

  • A.neutral

  • B. active

  • C.positive

  • D.friendly
  • 3. The_____ is very heavy this morning.

  • A means

  • B.way

  • C.road

  • D.traffic
  • 4. The government plans to increase _________ by five percent over the next year.

  • A.tax

  • B.dues

  • C.duty

  • D.taxes
  • 5. _____ mail takes much longer than air mail.

  • A.road

  • B.surface

  • C.water

  • D.bus
  • 6. They are trying their efforts to _______ the military expending.

  • A.decreased

  • B.decreasing

  • C.decreases

  • D.decrease
  • 7. This year’s fall in profits was not unexpected. ___________, it is very disappointing.

  • A.less

  • B.the

  • C.Nevertheless

  • D.Never
  • 8. He ______ that the thief must have entered the room through the window.

  • A.reasoned

  • B.reasonable

  • C.thought

  • D.think
  • 9. I didn’t know his telephone number. ________it , I ______ then.

  • A.Had I known, would ring him up

  • B.Should I know, would I have rung him up

  • C.If I knew, would ring him up

  • D.Had I known, would have rung him up
  • 10. If they _________earlier than expected, they ________ here now.

  • A.started, might be

  • B.had started, would be.

  • C.started, would have been

  • D.will start, might have been
  • 11. If I _________where he lived, I ______a note to him.

  • A.knew, would

  • B.hadn’t known, would have sent

  • C.know, would send

  • D.knew, would have sent
  • 12. I _____him the answer _____possible, but I was so busy then.

  • A.could tell, if it had been

  • B.should have told, had it been

  • C.must have told, were it

  • D.should have told, should it be
  • 13. You didn’t take his advice, ______it, you ______such a mistake.

  • A.If you had taken, would make

  • B.Were you to take, shouldn’t have made

  • C.Had you taken, wouldn’t have made

  • D.Have you taken, won’t have made
  • 14. Were I to do it, I _____it some other way.

  • A.would do

  • B.will do

  • C.would have done

  • D.were to do
  • 15. Without your help, we _____so much.

  • A.won’t achieve

  • B.wouldn’t have achieved

  • C.don’t achieve

  • D.didn’t achieve
  • 正确答案:1. A   2. A   3. D   4. D   5. B   6. D   7. C   8. A   9. D   10. B   11. B   12. B   13. C   14. A   15. B  
  • II   Directions: You are required to find the items equivalent to those given in Chinese in the table below.
  • (  ) 1.卡车
  • (  ) 2.敞篷车
  • (  ) 3.皮卡
  • (  ) 4.警车
  • (  ) 5.救援车
  • (  ) 6.出租车
  • (  ) 7.跑车
  • (  ) 8.旅行车
  • (  ) 9.拖车
  • (  ) 10.老爷车
  • a. pickup
  • b. police car
  • c. roadster
  • d. sports car
  • e. station wagon
  • f. taxi
  • g. trailer truck
  • h. truck
  • i. wecker
  • j. wrecker
  • 正确答案:1. h   2. c   3. a   4. b   5. j   6. f   7. d   8. e   9. g   10. i  
  • III   Directions: Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
  • 1 My daily commute to and from work generally take about 25 minutes
  • 2 In a recent survey of drivers in the U.S., 45 percent agreed that driving was their time to think and enjoy being alone.
  • 3.Smith also uses evidence collected by other scholars to confirm that drivers are far less negative about the time they spend in the car than experts have previously believed.
  • 4.But experts hardly agree that Americans generally like to drive themselves to work.
  • 5. Only 5 percent of commuters take mass transit to work — and the number has been dropping.
  • 参考答案:1. 我每天上下班花在路上的时间大约为25分钟。
    2. 最近对美国驾车族的调查发现,45%的人认为驾车是他们进行思考和享受独处的时间。
    3. 史密斯还使用了其他学者收集到的证据来证明,开车的人对花在车里的时间远远没有专家们原先认为的那么反感。
    4. 但是专家们还是不承认美国人一般都喜欢开车。
    5. 只有5%的上班族乘坐公共交通工具上下班,而且他们的人数还一直在减少。


Text A / Comprehension

A. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false, try to supply a true one.

1. Allen Smith’s survey shows that in America men like driving more than women do.

2. Experts believe that cars are bad for the environment and communities.

3. Now 85 percent of American commuters take mass transit to work.

4. That cars and highways are safer is one of the reasons why Americans prefer private cars.

5. According to the author, people in all places prefer to drive if they can.

6. The author thinks that it is high time to reduce mass transit services.

Key:

1. F  Allen Smith’s survey shows that in America women like their drive time as much as men do.

2. T

3. F Now only 5 percent of American commuters take mass transit to work.

4. T

5. T

6. F The author thinks that it is high time to build more highways.

B. Complete the statements that follow the questions.

1. How does the author go to and come back from work every day?

He _____and from work every day.

2. How many people took a neutral view in Allen Smith’s survey?

___________of the people took a neutral view.

3. In Allen Smith’s opinion, why do Americans like driving?

Americans like driving because cars offer ______________.They can breathe in the middle of the breathless pace of work and home, phones and the Internet.

4. What does mass transit consist of?

________subways, ________, and commuter trains.

5. According to the author, what is keeping Americans behind the wheel?

 It is the________that cars provide.

6. What is the author’s advice to those who do not like cars?

They should face the reality that __________

Key:

1.drives to

2. Twenty-five percent

3. a rare space over which the drivers have total control.

4. Buses, trolleys

5. freedom flexibility and efficiency

6. Americans would rather drive.

Vocabulary Building / Exercises

A.Match the definitions in Column B with the words in Column

A.Fill in each of the following blanks with the proper form of the given words.

1. We can only get through the financial crisis by ______(reduce) our expenses.

2. For some _______(reasonable) or other I feel a little bit faint.

3. The heating system has recently been repaired to make it more _____(efficiency).

4. The ______(commute) train between the town center and the bus stop is never punctual.

5. I will speak up for those people when others talk ______(negative) about them.

6. She is very interested in the meteorological study of climates and their______ (phenomenon).

7. His family is the_______ (drive) force behind his accomplishments.

8. These goods were damaged in _____ (transit).

Key:

1. reducing    

2. reason       

3. efficient      

4. commuter

5. negatively  

6. phenomena    

7. driving       

8. transit

Grammar Tips / Exercises

Complete each of the following sentences in the subjunctive mood.

1.If the doctor had come earlier,_________________________ (那个孩子就不会死了).

2. I suggested my husband _______________________ (把车停进车库).

3. ________________________(如果我有足够的钱), I would have bought a much bigger car.

4. ___________________________(如果他明天就出发), he would get there by Friday.

5. It is proposed that __________________________(老板给工人涨工资).

6. If the car had stopped in time, ________________________ (就不会与卡车相撞了).

7.________________________(万一明天下雨), what could we do?

8.He requested that ________________________________(经理给他面试的机会).

1. the child wouldn’t have died

2. should park the car in garage

3. If I had had enough money

4. If he were to leave tomorrow

5. the boss should raise the salary for workers

6. it wouldn’t have crashed the truck

7. If it should rain tomorrow

8. the manager give him an interview

Text B/ Comprehension

A. Choose the best answer for each of the following statements or questions.

1. According to the text, how can you get some neat vehicles that science fiction promised?

A. They can be acquired by purchase.

B. They can be acquired by lottery.

C. You cannot get them because they are nonexistent.

D. You cannot get them because they are not available for sale.

2. How far can a Martin Jetpack go in 30 minutes?

A. 62.5 miles.

B. 65 miles.

C. 32.5 miles.

D. 31.5 miles.

3. When was the first flying boat made?

A. At the time of the Wright brothers.

B. It’s still developing.

C. About two years ago.

D. Not mentioned.

4. Who seems to be the potential buyer of the flying boat?

A. People who can afford both a new plane and a new boat.

B. People who can afford neither a new plane nor a new boat.

C. People who cannot afford both a new car and a new boat.

D. People who cannot afford either a new car or a new boat.

5. What kind of fuel can be used to fill up a flying boat?

A. Aviation fuel.

B. Biofuel.

C. Regular gas.

D. Diesel fuel.

6. Combining ________ into a helicycle seems like asking for trouble.

A. a boat and a helicopter

B. a motorcycle and a helicopter

C. a motorcycle and a car

D. a car and a helicopter

Key: 1. A   2. D    3.A    4. C    5. C    6.B    

B. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. If a statement is false, try to supply a true one.

1. Although aviation pioneers are working hard to bring us the vehicles of the future, those neat vehicles do not exist.

2. Compared with other science fiction gadgets, jetpacks are the best-loved but not practical.

3.Users of the jetpack need special training besides a regular pilot’s license.

4. If you order a Martin Jetpack in 2012, hopefully you will get it by 2014.

5. The flying car has an MP3 player dock and water-proof leather seats.

6. The most famous new car-plane hybrid being developed is named Terrafugia Transition.

Key:

1. F   Actually those neat vehicles are already here, along with things that no science fiction writer forecast.

2. T

3. F There is no license required and training comes with purchase.

4. T 

5. F  The ICON flying boat has an MP3 player dock and water-proof leather seats.

6. T

Comprehensive Exercises

A. Read the following passage and choose the best answer for each of the blanks.

    Today the car is the most popular sort of transportation in all of the United States. It has completely (1)______ the horse as a (2)_____of everyday transportation. Americans use their car for nearly 90% of all personal business. Most Americans are able to buy cars. The average price of a (3)_____made car was $1,500 in 1950, $2,600 in 1960 and up to $4,250 in 1975. During this period American car manufacturers set about (4)_____their products and work efficiency. As a result, the yearly income of the (5)_____family increased from 1950 to 1975 (6)_____than the price of cars. For this reason (7)_____a new car takes a smaller part of a family’s total earnings today. In 1951 (8)_____it took 8.1 months of an average family’s annual earnings; by 1975 it only took 4.75 months’ income. In addition, the 1975 cars were technically (9)____to models from previous years. The (10)____of the automobile extends throughout the economy as the car is so important to Americans. Americans spend more money in keeping their cars running than on any other item.

1. A. denied        B. reproduced    C. replaced      D. ridiculed

2. A. means      B. mean            C. types           D. kinds

3. A. quickly       B. regularly    C. rapidly          D. recently

4. A. raising        B. making         C. reducing       D. improving

5. A. unusual       B. smallest          C. average       D. biggest

6. A. slower        B. equal      C. faster             D. less

7. A. bringing    B. obtain       C. bought          D. purchasing

8. A. clearly       B. proportionally      C. percentage    D. suddenly

9. A. famous      B. superior             C. fastest        D. better

10. A. running    B. notice               C. influence        D. affect

Key:

1.B  2.A  3.B  4.D  5.C  6.C  7.D  8.B  9.B  10.C

B. Translate the following sentences into English using the words or phrases given.

1. 我宁愿开车去那里。(would rather)

2. 研究资料表明,目前有私家车的家庭占到30%以上。(account for)

3. 现在飞机可以超音速飞行,它们可以突破音障。(break through)

4. 中国新能源汽车技术的发展历史最早可以追溯到上世纪。(date back to)

5. 有一辆陌生的车子拐入了我们这条街。(turn into)

Key:

1. I would rather go there by car.

2.Studies indicate that the families who have private vehicles account for more than 30 percent.

3.Now planes can fly faster than the speed of sound, breaking through the sound barrier.

4.The history of new energy automotive technology development in China dates back to the last century.

5.There is a strange vehicle turning into our street.

C. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.

     People who dislike cars need to face the reality: Americans would rather drive. Subways and commuter trains, no matter how much is spent on them, will account for only a small proportion of commuter trips. We have far more mass transit than we need, but not nearly enough highway lanes. So it is high time to start spending the money where it is most needed.

不喜欢车的人必须面对这个现实:美国人宁愿开车。无论投多少钱建设地铁和通勤列车,它们都只会占上下班交通的一小部分。我们的公共交通系统远远供大于求,而高速公路车道却不够用。因此是时候开始把钱花在最需要的地方了。

Practical Reading and Writing

A. Complete the answer (in no more than three words) to each of the following questions.

1. What position is the writer applying for?

___________.

2. How old is the applicant?

She is __________ old.

3. When will the applicant graduate?

In ___________.

4. What is her major at college?

___________.

5. Where has the applicant worked as a part-time broker?

At the Beijing ___________.

Key:

1. Stockbroker.

2. twenty-two years

3. July

4. Securities

5. Commodities Futures Exchange

B. Write a job application letter based on the following information. You should write at least 70 words. Follow the example you have read and pay close attention to the writing tips given above.

假如你是李好(女),对最近报纸上招聘服务员的广告很感兴趣。请给Black先生写信应聘该职位,随信附上个人简历以及获得的证书。信中内容包括:

1. 简要介绍自己;

2. 说明你的资质、能力以及工作经验完全符合服务员工作的要求;

3. 期待回复,留下自己的电话联系方式:

白天:67934721

下午6点之后:20384764

Sample Answer:

圆角矩形:                                                                                                   May 20, 2014
Dear Mr. Black,
      I would like to express my interest in your recently advertised position for a waitress. I am enclosing my résumé, which further details my previous work experience and certificates.
     Not only do I have the qualifications and work experience for this job, but I also have the right personality for a waitress. I am a friendly person who can quickly establish a good relationship with people of all ages. The fast-paced environment of waiting on tables suits me, because I enjoy working under pressure. My former boss was impressed with my efficiency in dealing with customers’ orders.
      I hope to meet with you to discuss the possibility of working at your restaurant. I can be reached at 67934721 during the day and 20384764 after 6 p.m.
      Thank you for considering my application. I look forward to meeting you in the near future.
                                                                                              Yours sincerely,
                                                                                                           Li Hao
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linwute
linwute

我要像梦一样自由,像大地一样宽容;
在艰辛放逐的路上,点亮生命的光芒;
我要像梦一样自由,像天空一样坚强;
在曲折蜿蜒的路上,体验生命的意义;

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