大学英语 新标准高职实用综合教程(第2版)第三册 Unit 02

  • Unit 02 : Names > Listening and Watching > Listening
    You will hear a recorded passage. After that you will hear five questions. Both the passage and the questions will be read twice. When you hear a question, you should complete the answer to it with a word or a short phrase (in no more than three words). The questions and incomplete answers are printed in the textbook for your reference.
  • 1. What do Chinese people have in common with Americans in naming their children?
    Both the Chinese and Americans would  when they name their children.
    2. According to the speaker, how do Chinese people choose their children’s names?
    It seems to the speaker that the Chinese choose their children’s names because they do not know anybody  that.
    3. How do people in the West choose names for their children?
    They usually choose names for their children precisely because they are the names of people they or .
    4. According to the speaker, how would the Americans usually name their first sons?
    The Americans often name first sons .
    5. Do the Americans pay particular attention to the meaning of names they choose for their children?
    No. The majority of them do not know or the meanings of the names.
  • 正确答案:1. choose carefully   2. called   3. know, respect   4. after their fathers   5. concern themselves about
  • Script:
    Just like the Chinese people, we Americans choose carefully when we name our children. But there are certainly differences between your custom and ours in naming the children.
    It seems you choose your children’s names because you do not know anybody called that. In the West, we usually choose names for our children precisely because they are the names of people we know or respect. Americans take it further, often naming first sons after their fathers. For Catholics it must be the name of a saint.
    Furthermore, you consider carefully the meaning of the names you choose for your children. The majority of us do not know or concern ourselves about the meanings of the names. We do not usually choose them on that basis.
  • 正确答案:
    • 正确答案:1. choose carefully   2. called   3. know, respect   4. after their fathers   5. concern themselves about
    • Script:
      Just like the Chinese people, we Americans choose carefully when we name our children. But there are certainly differences between your custom and ours in naming the children.
      It seems you choose your children’s names because you do not know anybody called that. In the West, we usually choose names for our children precisely because they are the names of people we know or respect. Americans take it further, often naming first sons after their fathers. For Catholics it must be the name of a saint.
      Furthermore, you consider carefully the meaning of the names you choose for your children. The majority of us do not know or concern ourselves about the meanings of the names. We do not usually choose them on that basis.

    脚本:
    就像中国人一样,我们美国人在给孩子起名时也很慎重。但是,在给孩子起名方面,你们的习惯和我们的习惯当然是不同的。
    你选择孩子的名字,似乎是因为你不知道有谁叫这个名字。在西方,我们通常为孩子取名字,正是因为他们是我们认识或尊敬的人的名字。美国人走得更远,经常用父亲的名字给长子起名。对天主教徒来说,它必须是圣人的名字。
    此外,你会仔细考虑你为孩子选择名字的意义。我们大多数人都不知道或不关心名字的含义。我们通常不会在这个基础上选择他们。


  • Unit 02 : Names > Text Study > Text A
 

  • What’s in a Name
1     “What’s in a name?”According to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, not too much.“That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.”But Shakespeare may have been wrong. In most cultures, names and titles matter a great deal.
2     Americans choose names for their children with care. Parents usually think about the impression a name gives, not its meaning. Most Americans would consider a “Jennifer” more attractive than a “Betha,” for example. The last name, or surname, must also be considered when choosing a first and middle name. A name like Lester Chester Hester would sound poetic, but strange. Parents may avoid names that remind them of people they don’t like.On the other hand, people might name their children after a respective older relative or even a famous person. The popularity of certain names can change with each new generation. Names that were once common, like Fanny or Elmer, sound old-fashioned today. But other names like John and David, Mary and Sarah have stood the test of time and continue to be favorites.
3     People in America don’t always call their friends and relatives by their given names. Instead, they often use nicknames. Sometimes they call a friend by the short form for a longer name. For instance, a girl named Elizabeth may be called Lisa, or Betsy. As children grow up, they may decide for themselves which nickname they wish to be called. If they consider their nickname childish, they may start using a more adult form. Some people just go by the initials of their first and middle names, like B. J. or R. C. And of course, people may call their children or their sweethearts other special names. Often they have a sweet flavor, like Honey or Sugar.
4     In informal settings, people are normally on a first-name basis.Sometimes older people even allow young people to call them by their first names. But in most formal situations, people use an appropriate title such as Mr. (Mister), Ms. (Miss or Mrs.), Dr. (doctor) or Prof. (professor) with a person’s last name. After an introduction, the person may say, for example, “Please call me Tom.” If not, use his or her surname.
5     Americans still use a very few formal titles which reflect their Old World heritage. The British address their king and queen as Your Majesty; Americans address the judge in a court as Your Honor. Americans speaking to their national leader respectfully call him Mr. President. And many churches address their leader as Reverend. In everyday situations, the polite forms sir and madam (or ma’am) show a measure of respect. But Americans don’t generally use the names of occupations or positions as formal titles. Students might address their teacher as Mr. (or Ms.) Hudson, but not Teacher Hudson.
6     What’s in a name? A name really means a lot. So if you are choosing an English name for yourself, take care to choose a good one. A made-up name could sound strange to native English speakers. And a translation of your Chinese name may not make an appropriate name, either.But a good name can leave a positive and lasting impression.As an American politician once said, “In real life, unlike in Shakespeare, the sweetness of the rose depends upon the name it bears.
  • Translation:
  • 名字算什么
  • 1    “名字算什么?”根据莎士比亚的《罗密欧和朱丽叶》,名字不算什么:“玫瑰如果换个名称,闻起来依然一样芬芳。”然而,莎士比亚也许错了。在很多文化里,名字和头衔都非常重要。
  • 2    美国人给孩子取名时很用心。美国父母通常考虑的是孩子的名字给他人的印象,而不是名字本身的意义。比如,大多数美国人认为“Jennifer”这个名字比“Betha”更能吸引人。取名字的时候,还要结合姓氏一起考虑。像“Lester Chester Hester”这样的姓名,听起来富有诗意,但有点怪。美国父母一般避免取那些让他们联想起他们讨厌的人的名字。另一方面,父母可能会以令人尊敬的亲人或者名人的名字为孩子取名字。某些名字在不同时代中受欢迎程度会不同。比如,像“Fanny”和“Elmer”这样的名字曾经很普遍,但现在听起来就过时了。可是“John”、“David”、“Mary”、“Sarah”这样的名字历经时间的考验,到现在依然是人们的最爱。
  • 3    美国人对朋友和亲人并不总是称呼他们的名字;他们倒是常用昵称。有时,他们会把朋友的名字简化。比如,人们称“Elizabeth”为“Lisa”或“Betsy”。孩子长大后,会自己决定更愿意别人用什么绰号称呼他们。如果他们认为自己的绰号太幼稚,会用显得更成熟些的绰号。有些人干脆用名字的首字母缩写,比如“B.J.”或“R.C.”。当然,人们在称呼自己的子女或爱人的时候会用一些特别的昵称,这些昵称常常带着甜蜜的意味,比如“蜜糖”。
  • 4    在非正式的场合,人们相互之间一般直呼其名。有时,长者也允许年轻人直呼其名。但在多数正式场合,人们会用适当的称谓(如“先生”、“女士”、“医生”、“教授”)加上姓氏称呼对方。相互介绍之后,对方可能会说:“叫我Tom吧。”如果对方没有这样说,那就应该以其(称谓加)姓氏称呼。
  • 5    美国人至今仍沿用一些非常正式的称谓,反映了美国人的欧洲传统。英国人称其国王和女王为“陛下”。美国人称法官为“阁下”。在与国家领导人说话时,美国人尊称其为“总统先生”。许多教会称其领袖为“大人”。在日常生活中,“先生”、“女士”这样的称呼表示一定程度的敬意。不过,美国人很少用职业或职位作为正式称谓。比如,学生可能会称老师为哈得森先生(或女士),但不会喊“哈得森老师”。
  • 6    名字算什么?名字很算回事。所以,如果你想替自己取个英文名,那么就仔仔细细挑选个好名字。一个生造的名字在以英语为母语的人听来,会显得不伦不类。直接把你的中文名译成英文名也不一定合适。好名字才能给人留下正面的、持久的印象。就如一位美国政治家说过,“不同于莎士比亚的戏剧,现实生活中玫瑰是否芬芳取决于它的名字。”

  • Unit 02 : Names > Key to Book Exercises

Text A / Comprehension

  1. Complete the following sentences according to the text, and then work with your partner and take turns asking and answering the questions orally.
  2. What did Shakespeare want to say about a name when he said “That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet”? Was he right, according to the text?

Shakespeare wanted to say that a name does not matter. But Shakespeare may have been wrong.

  1. What kinds of names may parents try to avoid?

Parents may avoid names that remind them of people they don’t like.

  1. How do Americans usually name their children?

American people might name their children after a respected older relative or even a famous person.

  1. How do Americans call their friends and relatives?

People in America don’t always call their friends and relatives by their given names. Instead, they often use nicknames.

  1. What is the effect of a good name?

A good name can leave a positive and lasting impression.


Choose the best answer for each of the following statements or questions according to the text.
When choosing names for their children, Americans usually consider ________.
whether the name has a good meaning
whether the name sounds poetic
whether the name has already been taken by others
whether the name gives a good impression
Which of the following names may sound old-fashioned today?
Fanny.
Mary.
John.
David.
How do Americans call each other in formal situations?
They normally call each other by their first names.
They normally call each other by their last names.
They usually use a title with the last name.
They usually use a nickname or special name.
How would an American student address a female teacher whose last name is Smith?
Teacher Smith.
Smith teacher.
Ms. Smith.
Reverend Smith.
The fact that Americans address the judge in a court as Your Honor shows ________.
their Old World heritage
they are common people
they are afraid of the judge
their respectability

Key: 1. D    2. A     3. C     4. C      5. A

Vocabulary Building / Exercises

  1. Match the words in the left-hand column with the Chinese meanings on the right.
  1. Fill in each of the following blanks with the proper form of the given words.
  2. These two countries have different _________(culture)  traditions.
  3. The manager is _________(consideration) my suggestions.
  4. He gave me a very good _________ (impress) with his neat appearance.
  5. I was very glad that he gave me a very_________ (positively) answer.
  6. A ________(poetic) is one who writes poetry.
  7. It is very _______ (child) of you to ask him such a question.
  8. A good person is not always _________(popularity).
  9. After a minute’s _________(reflect), he answered the question correctly.

Key:

  1. cultural    2. considering           3. impression         4. positive
  2. poet      6. childish              7. popular            8. reflection

Grammar Tips / Exercises

  1. Translate the following sentences into English.
  2. 我们以前没见过面,对不对?

Key: We haven’t met each other before, have we?

  1. 你难道不觉得我们应该请他来参加晚会?

Key: Don’t you think we should invite him to the party?

  1. 你今天感觉如何?

Key: How are you today? / How do you feel today?

  1. 和我们班长说话的那个人是谁?

Key: Who is speaking with our monitor?

  1. 今天晚上我们是去看电影还是去图书馆?

Key: Shall we go to the cinema or the library this evening?

 

  1. Fill in each blank with an appropriate word to complete the sentence.
  2. Are you sure you want to change your mobile phone?

Yes , I’m sure.

  1. What   is John’s father? He is an engineer.
  2. You aren’t going to the supermarket, are you?

  No  ,  I’m not going to the supermarket.

  1. What would you like to have, Cokeor  orange juice?

  I would like to have orange juice, please.

  1. Isn’t it terribly hot today?

Yes, isn’t it?

Text B / Comprehension

  1. Answer the following questions according to the text.
  2. Why did Debbie change her name?

Debbie changed her name because  she felt her name didn’t suit her good looks and good manners.

  1. What happened to Debbie after she changed her name?

 After that, she felt  more comfortable with herself and other people started to treat her more seriously.

  1. Why does the name Joe trouble the author as a writer?

 The name troubles the author because some people think the name Joe make him more qualified to be a football player than an art critic.

  1. Why did the woman feel uneasy when hearing the name of Harry?

 She felt uneasy because it was the same Harry that she turned down a few days ago.

  1. How do the name prejudices affect the classroom?

Teachers often  gave lower grades on essays written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they gave to the same papers when the authors’ names were given as Michael and David.

  1. Decide if the following sentences are true or false according to the text. Write T for true or F for false.

T  1. According to the woman, Debbie is not a good name for her.

F  2. Lynne has been a successful magazine editor for three years.

T  3. Your name may represent your image and characteristics.

T  4. Harry as a man’s name doesn’t sound attractive.

F  5. Actually, name prejudices do not matter in the classroom.

T  6. According to the author, movie stars regularly change their names.

Comprehensive Exercises

I’ve ________ him to run faster than that.
know
known
knowing
knew
What I have said does not apply ________ you.
of
for
to
on
The patient said that he felt ________ before the operation.
uneasy
unease
uneasily
uneased
We were ________ in stopping the leak of oil.
success
successful
successes
succeed
My parents don’t ________ of smoking cigarettes.
approving
approval
approved
approve
That child is ________ good health.
on
in
of
out
Joan’s mother ________ to consent to her going abroad.
offered
rebuffed
refused
refusal
The ________ team pitched on the mountain.
survey
surveying
assess
investigate

Key: 1. B     2. C      3. A     4. B     5. D     6. B     7. C      8. A


  1. Fill in the blanks with the words given below.
sound                omitted                after                the         
out                   when                 meant             suggest       

 Recently, a very good Chinese friend of mine asked me to suggest some English names, to help her choose one for her newborn son. I duly gave her a list of about 20 names which I thought would sound good with his family name. I omitted my own, as it was not proper for me to suggest that she should name him after me.

She immediately rejected most of the entries, saying, “He can’t have that; I already know someone who is called that!”

She chose “Benedict” out of the remaining names on my list, but not because of the sound. It was when I mentioned casually that it came from Latin and “blessed” that his fate was sealed.


  1. Translate the following sentences into English using the words or phrases given.
  2. 罗伯特(Robert)的绰号是“老虎”。(nickname)

Tiger is the nickname for Robert.

  1. 调查表明,现在的孩子时兴取单名(one-character name)。(survey, in fashion)

According to a survey, one-character names for children are now in fashion.

  1. 我们称呼数学老师为李教授或李博士。(address)

We address our math teacher as Professor Li or Dr. Li.

  1. 中国人的姓名是中国文化的一部分。(culture)

Chinese people’s names are part of Chinese culture.

  1. 名字并不能真正反映一个人的品质。(reflect, quality)

One’s name cannot truly reflect one’s qualities.


  1. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
  2. People in America don’t always call their friends and relatives by their given names.

美国人对朋友和亲人并不总是称呼他们的名字。

  1. In informal settings, people are normally on a first-name basis.

在非正式场合,人们相互之间一般直呼其名。

  1. American students might address their teacher as Mr. (or Ms.) Hudson, but not Teacher Hudson.

美国学生可能会称老师为哈德森先生(或女士),但不会喊哈德森老师

  1. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name.

最近的一项调查显示,美国男性认为苏珊是最吸引人的女性名字。

  1. In a study, teachers often gave lower grades on essays written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they gave to the same papers when the authors’ names were given as Michael and David. However, teachers’ prejudice isn’t the only source of classroom difference. Researchers found that girls with names like Linda and Diane did better on objective tests than did girls with less attractive names.

一项研究表明,教师在给作文打分时,那些名叫埃尔默和休伯特的男生的作文得分往往比较低,而同样的作文,如果把作者的名字换成迈克尔或大卫,得分就会高一点。不过,教师的偏见并非课堂表现差异的唯一原因。研究者发现,名字叫琳达和黛安的女生在客观题考试中要比那些名字不是那么有吸引力的女生的成绩好。


Practical Reading and Writing / Exercises

  1. Complete the answer (in no more than three words) to each of the following questions.
  2. Why is Yang Xiaoling writing this letter?

Yang Xiaoling writes this letter to ask Mr. Liu Hongjun for help.

  1. What is the relationship between Zhang Lan and Yang Xiaoling?

Zhang Lan and Yang Xiaoling are friends .

  1. What is Zhang Lan going to do?

She is going to take a business trip to Nanjing.

  1. What is Zhang Lan’s flight number?

Her flight number is CA851 .

  1. When should Liu Hongjun meet Zhang Lan at the airport?

Mr. Liu Hongjun should meet Zhang Lan at 11 a.m. on June 8 .


  1. You are required to write a letter according to the following information given in Chinese. You should write at least 70 words. Follow the example in the Practical Reading section and pay close attention to the writing tips outlined above.

 

收  信  人:约翰·史密斯(John Smith)

写  信  人:胡大立

内       容:史密斯于4月29日的来信已经收到,知道他将于6月10日到上海进行商务考察。史密斯来上海的行程已经做好安排,届时公司的经理张长华会到浦东国际机场迎接。如果史密斯的时间安排有变化,请及时告知。对史密斯来上海表示欢迎。

写信日期:2013年5月20日

Sample answer

圆角矩形: May 20, 2013 Dear Mr. Smith, I have received your letter of April 29. The itinerary of your business trip to Shanghai from June 10 has been all arranged. Our manager Zhang Changhua will meet you at Pudong International Airport. Please keep us informed of any time change beforehand. We all look forward to seeing you soon. Yours sincerely, Hu Dali

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